The British Aerospace 125 is a twin-engined mid-size corporate jet, with newer variants now marketed as the Hawker 800. It was known as the Hawker Siddeley HS.125 until 1977. It was also used by the British Royal Air Force as a navigation trainer (as the Hawker Siddeley Dominie T1) until January 2011 and was used by the United States Air Force as a calibration aircraft (as the C-29).
In 1961, de Havilland began working on a revolutionary small business jet, the DH.125 Jet Dragon, intended to replace the piston engined de Havilland Dove business aircraft and light transport. The DH.125 design was for a low-winged monoplane with a pressurised fuselage accommodating two pilots and six passengers. It was powered by two Bristol Siddeley Viper turbojets mounted on the rear fuselage. The slightly swept wing employed large slotted flaps and airbrakes to allow operation from small airfields. The first of two prototypes flew on 13 August 1962, with the second following on 12 December that year. The first production aircraft, longer and with a greater wingspan than the two prototypes, flew on 12 February 1963, with the first delivery to a customer on 10 September 1964.
The aircraft went through many designation changes during its service life. Hawker Siddeley had bought de Havilland the year before project start, but the old legacy brand and the "DH" designation was used throughout development. After the jet achieved full production, the name was finally changed to "HS.125". When Hawker Siddeley Aircraft merged with the British Aircraft Corporation to form British Aerospace in 1977, the name changed to BAe 125.
When British Aerospace sold its Business Jets Division to Raytheon (Raytheon Aircraft Company) in 1993, the jet acquired the name Raytheon Hawker. The fuselage, wings and tail-fin are to this day fully assembled and partially equipped (primary and secondary flight controls) in Airbus UK's Broughton plant, on the outskirts of Chester, sub-assemblies are produced in Airbus UK's Buckley (Bwcle in Welsh) site. All these assembled components are then shipped to Wichita, Kansas in the United States, to where final assembly was transferred in 1996.
In March 2007, Raytheon Aircraft Company was sold to Hawker Beechcraft Corp., a company formed and controlled by GS Capital Partners (an affiliate of Goldman Sachs) and Onex Partners of Canada.
De Havilland DH.125 Series 1 / Hawker Siddeley HS.125 Series 1
• DH.125 Series 1 - first version, powered by 3,000 lbf (13 kN) Viper 20 or 520 engines. Nine built, including two prototypes (43 ft 6 in (13.26 m) long, 44 ft (13.41 m) span) and seven production aircraft (47 ft 5 in (14.56 m) long, 47 ft (14.33 m) long.
• DH.125 Series 1A/1B - upgraded Bristol Siddeley Viper 521 or 522 engines with 3,100 lbf (14 kN) of thrust each, and five cabin windows instead of six. Series 1A for US FAA certification (62 built), Series 1B for sale elsewhere (13 built).
Hawker Siddeley HS.125 Series 2
• HS.125 Series 2 - navigation trainer for Royal Air Force, with service designation Dominie T.1 - (Rolls Royce Viper 301)
Hawker Siddeley HS.125 Series 3
• HS.125 Series 3 - upgraded engines
Hawker Siddeley HS.125-400
• HS.125 Series 400 - upgraded engines
• HS.125 CC1 - Series 400 liaison aircraft for Royal Air Force
Hawker Siddeley HS.125-600
• HS.125 Series 600 - 3 ft 1 in (0.94 m) fuselage stretch to increase capacity to 14 passengers
• HS.125 CC2 - Series 600 liaison aircraft for Royal Air Force
Hawker Siddeley HS.125-700 / British Aerospace HS.125-700 (Year 1977-1978)
• HS.125 Series 700 - Honeywell TFE731-3RH turbofan engines with 3,720 lbf (16.5 kN) of thrust each, first flight 19 June 1976
• HS.125 Protector - Series 700-based maritime patrol aircraft with a search radar and cameras
• BAe 125 CC3 - Series 700 liaison aircraft for Royal Air Force
British Aerospace BAE.125-800 / Raytheon Hawker 800
• BAe 125 Series 800 - increased wingspan, streamlined nose, tail fin extension, increased fuel capacity, first corporate jet to feature an EFIS cockpit, upgraded engines, first flight 26 May 1983
• Hawker 800 - BAe 125-800 after 1993
• Hawker 800SP and 800XP2 - New designation for 800A/B and 800XP aircraft when upgraded with aftermarket winglets
British Aerospace BAE.125-1000 / Raytheon Hawker 1000
• BAe 125 Series 1000 - intercontinental version of the Series 800, 2 ft 9 in (0.84 m) fuselage stretch to increase capacity to 15, increased fuel capacity, Pratt & Whitney Canada PW-305 turbofans with 5,200 lbf (23 kN) thrust each, first flight 16 June 1990, 52 built
• Hawker 1000 - BAe 125-1000 after 1993
Raytheon Hawker 800XP / Hawker-Beechcraft Hawker 800XP
• Hawker 800XP - TFE731-5BR1H turbofan engines with 4,660 lbf (20.7 kN) of thrust each
Raytheon Hawker 850XP / Hawker-Beechcraft Hawker 850XP
• Hawker 850XP - 800XP with factory installed winglets and interior updates
Hawker-Beechcraft Hawker 750
• Hawker 750 - 800XP with a light-weight interior and heated baggage compartment in place of the ventral fuel tank
Hawker-Beechcraft Hawker 900XP
• Hawker 900XP - 850XP with Honeywell TFE731-50R turbofan engines for increased hot/high performance and longer range
A military version of the Hawker 800 is in use by South Korea for tactical reconnaissance, surveillance and SIGINT (SIGnals INTelligence) tasks, and 8 specially-equipped aircraft were delivered in 2000. The Republic of Korea Air Force calls them RC-800s, and they are based at Seongnam.
Japan uses a maritime search and rescue variant of the Hawker 800. It is designated U-125A in Japan Air Self-Defense Force service. This variant has large observation windows, a flare and marker-buoy dispenser system, life-raft and emergency equipment dropping system and enhanced salt water corrosion prevention. The aircraft also has a Toshiba 360-degree search radar, melco thermal imaging equipment and other military communications equipment for its mission.
• C-29A - Series 800 for US military designed to replace the Lockheed C-140A, used by the Air Force to accomplish the combat flight inspection and navigation mission (C-FIN) at US airbases around the world, participated in Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm during the First Persian Gulf War.
• U-125 - Series 800-based flight inspection aircraft for Japan (similar to C-29A)
• U-125A - Series 800-based search and rescue aircraft for Japan
• Handley Page HP.130 - A 1965 proposal with boundary layer control wings (not built). It was to be powered by two Bristol Siddeley Viper 520s of 3,000 lbf (13 kN) thrust with a projected Maximum speed of Mach 0.8. This conversion was for laminar-flow research purposes.
Private operators, air taxi, shared ownership and corporate charter operators worldwide.
Qantas - Two HS.125 Series 3s were used for crew training. The aircraft were in service from 1965 to 1972.
Air Georgian - 1 HS.125 in service.
- Morningstar Partners Ltd. Two Hawker 900XP based in Edmonton and Toronto currently in service as part of fractional fleet.
Deerjet, Hainan Airlines - 4 Hawker 800XP, 2 Hawker 850XP and 1 Hawker 900XP are in service in Deerjet based at Beijing.
Shanghai Airlines - 1 Hawker 800XP is in service in Shanghai Airlines based at Shanghai.
Government of Kuwait - Former operator
Aurela - 1 Hawker 850XP and 1 Hawker 900XP in service based at Vilnius International Airport.
Hornbill Skyways- Former operator
Associated Aviation - 2 HS. 125 Series 700 are in use.
Royal Airlines - 1 Hawker Siddeley HS 125 (Passenger) V.I.P.
Argentine Naval Aviation operated one VIP. See also Escuadrón Fénix
Biafran Air Force operated one aircraft.
Brazilian Air Force
Botswana Defence Force Air Wing
Irish Air Corps
Japan Air Self-Defense Force
Military of Malawi
Royal Malaysian Air Force
Nicaraguan Air Force
National Guard (Nicaragua)
Nigerian Air Force
Pakistan Air Force
Pakistan Naval Air Arm
- Republic of Korea
Republic of Korea Air Force: First introduction Time : 2001
- Saudi Arabia
Royal Saudi Air Force
- South Africa
South African Air Force
No. 21 Squadron SAAF
- United Kingdom
Royal Air Force
No. 32 Squadron RAF
No. 55(R) Squadron RAF (Dominie T1)
- United States
United States Air Force
Accidents & Incidents
On 22 November 1966, de Havilland DH.125 N235KC of Florida Commuter Airlines crashed into the sea 7.3 kilometres (3.9 nmi) off Grand Bahama International Airport, Freeport, Bahamas during an illegal flight from Miami, Florida.
In July 1967, Air Hanson HS125 (G-ASNU) carrying former Congolese president Moise Tshombe was hijacked and taken to Algeria.
On 23 December 1967 a Hawker Siddeley HS 125 (registration: G-AVGW) of Court Line crashed shortly after taking off from Luton Airport, killing both pilots. The aircraft had been on a training flight. The crash occurred when the crew simulated an engine failure on takeoff. The HS 125 lost height rapidly and hit the roof of the nearby Vauxhall Motors factory. This resulted in a post-crash fire.
On 26 May 1971, three Mercurius HS-125 aircraft belonging to the South African Air Force flew into Devil's Peak, Cape Town, while practising for a flypast for the 10th anniversary of the republic.
On 20 November 1975, a British Aerospace BAe 125 overran the runway at Dunsfold Aerodrome after a bird strike on take off. The aircraft hit a car and stopped in a field, killing six people in the car and one crew member out of nine passengers and crew.
On 8 September 1987, a Brazilian Air Force Hawker Siddeley HS.125 registration FAB-2129 crashed upon take-off from Carajás. All nine occupants died.
On 7 August 1988, a BAe-125 owned by the Botswana Government was carrying the President of Botswana, J.K. Quett Masire, and his staff to a meeting in Luanda. An Angolan MiG-23 Flogger pilot fired two R-60 (AA-8 Aphid) missiles at the plane. One missile hit the no. 2 engine, causing it to fall off the aircraft. The second missile then hit the falling engine. The crew was able to make a successful emergency landing on a bush strip at Cutio Bie.
On March 16, 1991 a Hawker Siddeley charter aircraft carrying band members for Reba McEntire crashed into the side of Otay Mountain. The accident occurred shortly after take off from a municipal airport outside of San Diego, California. All eight band members aboard plus two pilots were killed in the crash believed to have been caused by poor visibility.
On 3 January 2006, Russian aircraft (AVCOM - Moscow) crashed in Kharkiv, Ukraine into the Komsomolsk lake, 3 people died (crew).
On 31 July 2008, East Coast Jets Flight 81, a Hawker 800, crashed on approach to an airport in Owatonna, Minnesota. The crash killed eight people, including casino and construction executives.
On 26 October 2009, S-Air Flight 9607, operated by BAe 125 RA-02807 crashed on approach to Minsk International Airport. All three crew and both passengers were killed.
A Hawker 850XP crashed on February 4, 2011, while taking off at the regional airport in Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. The crash killed seven people, including VIP working for QTEL/Asiacell.
Specifications (HS.125 Series 600)
Capacity: 8 passengers (normal layout), 14 passengers in high density layout
Length: 50 ft 6 in (15.39 m)
Wingspan: 47 ft 0 in (14.33 m)
Height: 17 ft 3 in (5.26 m)
Wing area: 353.0 ft² (32.8 m²)
Empty weight: 12,530 lb (5,683 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 25,000 lb (11,340 kg)
Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Viper 601-22 turbojets, 3,750 lbf (16.7 kN) each
Maximum speed: 522 mph (454 knot, 840 km/h) at 28,000 ft (8,500 m) (Max cruise)
Cruise speed: 464 mph (403 knot, 747 km/h) at 39,000 ft (11,900 m) (Econ cruise)
Stall speed: 96 mph (83 knots, 155 km/h) (flaps down)
Range: 1,796 mi (1,560 nmi, 2,891 km) max fuel and payload
Service ceiling: 41,000 ft (12,500 m)
Rate of climb: 4,900 ft/min (24.9 m/s)
Specifications (Hawker 850XP)
Crew: 2 pilots
Capacity: 8 passengers typical, 13 maximum
Length: 51 ft 2 in (15.6 m)
Wingspan: 54 ft 4 in (16.5 m)
Height: 18 ft 1 in (5.5 m)
Empty weight: 15,670 lb (7,108 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 28,000 lb (12,701 kg)
Powerplant: 2 × Honeywell TFE731-5BR turbofan, 4660 lbf each
Maximum speed: 448 kts (514 mph) 830 km/h
Cruise speed: 402 kts (463 mph) 745 km/h
Range: 2,642 nm (4,893 km)
Service ceiling: 41,000 ft (12,497 m)